New onset of heterophilic antibody interference in. A problem for all immunoassays article pdf available in clinical chemistry 341. Heterophile antibodies antibodies which cross phyla in their reactivity are produced against poorly defined antigens and generally show weak avidity and are multispecies specific. Immunoassays for disease detection and diagnosis quidel. Thus, heterophilic antibodies are absent in the protein free ultrafiltrate, and monitoring free. The researchers focused on describing interferences that commonly affect immunoassays of tsh, free thyroxine t4, and free triiodothyronine t3. It has been found that as much as 22% of certain sandwich immunoassay results are false positive results caused by heterophilic antibody interference. In about 3% of tg measurements heterophile antibodies will interfere with the results of the test. We verified that antibodybinding substances in serum that interfere in twosite immunoassays involving murine antibodies are heterophilic antibodies. Heterophilic antibodies remain a problem for the immunoassay laboratory. Issues of interferences in clinical chemistry tests including heterophilic antibody. Pdf heterophilic antibodies remain a problem for the.
Interference of heterophilic and other antibodies in. Heterophilic antibodies in human serum can react with the immunoglobulins included in the assay components causing interference with in vitro immunoassays. Heterophilic antibody interference in immunometric assays. Heterophile antibody interference in a multiplexed. While modern immunoassays provide sensitive and specific means for the quantitation of cytokines in biological fluids, heterophile antibodies are still a wellrecognized cause of interference in. Immunoassay remains the method of choice in the clinical laboratory. Heterophile antibody interference in a multiplexed fluorescent. Heterophilic antibodies remain a problem for the immunoassay laboratory article pdf available in american journal of clinical pathology 1084. An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody usually or an antigen sometimes.
Reducing immunoassay interferences through innovative. Immunoassays that use antibodies are easy to perform, specific for an epitope or conformation of an analyte, and highly vulnerable towards confounding factors or interferences in. Pdf we verified that antibodybinding substances in serum that. Exogenous interferences are any interference caused by the. Any form of interference may result in incorrect values being produced. With immunoassays pursuing lower detection limits, multiplexing analytes, and higher sample. Adding nonspecific immunoglobulins to the reaction mixture may reduce interference if the human antibodies bind to these instead of binding the assay antibodies.
Introduction, heterophilic anlibodies in human sem thll react with mouse immunoglobulins lgs, human anlimollse 19 antibodies hamas. Failure to identify heterophilic antibody interference in serum from a. Potential sources of interference on abeta immunoassays in. Bioanalytical interferences in immunoassays for antibody. Protein a binds to all human immunoglobulins except igg3 and igd, whereas protein g recognizes all igg subclasses but not the other human ig classes 23. Heterophilic antibodies causing falsely high serum. Heterophile antibodies may be present in all patients,11,12 however the potential for immunoassay interference from heterophile antibodies is less than for. Heterophile antibodies are antibodies induced by external antigens heterophile antigens some crossreact with selfantigens. Crossreaction is a problem in diagnostic immunoassays where. Tg heterophile antibodies interference very technical. Heterophile antibodies are a wellrecognized cause of interference in immunoassays 4, 12, 14, 19 and are present in 5 to 40% of normal blood donors 7, 8, 11.
New onset of heterophilic antibody interference in prostatespecific antigen measurement occurring during the period of postprostatectomy prostatespecific antigen monitoring show all authors. Serum samples were obtained from 295 consecutive patients who underwent routine thyroid function testing. Heterophile antibodies result in false positive tg results. An immunoassay is a test that relies on biochemistry to measure the presence andor concentration of an analyte. However, until the method developer has access to authentic samples. The aim was to include immunoassays that are frequently used in the veterinary laboratory, andor immunoassays where interference could have a high impact on the course of treatment.
The heterophilic antibodies are not species specific, but can bind to a variety of animal antibodies. Thus, the interference is not limited to monoclonal antibodybased assays. The use of free t4 assays has largely overcome the problem of interpreting t4. Interference is also a problem for thyroglobulin tg assays with endogenous. War on heterophilic antibody interference clinical. It is equally important that physicians communicate any clinical suspicion of. They include heterophilic antibodies, human antianimal antibodies, autoanalyte. Such interference has been increasingly recognized as a. To examine possible heterophilic interference in other prenatal screening samples with a high inhibin a concentration, we searched laboratory records compiled during a 2year time period n 9079. With such a large potential for immunoassay false positive values it is important to block heterophilic interference.
Heterophilic antibodies ha may interfere in some immunoassays, causing falsely high hormone values, of wich practitioners should be aware when measuring calcitonin ct. False increase in creactive protein attributable to. Heterophilic antibodies may cause false results even in competitive assays,2, 3 where the analyte in the sample of unknown concentration competes with added labeled analyte of known concentration for. Heterophilic iga, igg and igm antibodies have all been demonstrated previously 4 and rheumatoid factors of all these immunoglobulin classes are known to exist in people 56,57. Hbt heterophilic blocking scantibodies s tube elimination of heterophilic interference f or immunochemistry assays part number. The analyte can be large proteins, antibodies that a person has produced as a result of an. Immunoassays are generally unaffected by sample haemolysis and icterus unlike other analytes measured by spectral or chemical means. The prevalence of heterophilic antibody interference in a modern immunochemiluminometric assay containing blocking agents was determined using thyrotropin as an illustrative example. Heterophilic antibodies may arise in a patient in response to exposure to certain animals or animal products or due to infection by bacterial or viral agents, or nonspecifically. Unusual results from immunoassays and the role of the clinical. Heterophilic definition of heterophilic by medical. Heterophile antibody an overview sciencedirect topics. Human heterophilic antibodies may bind the animal antibodies used in an immunoassay and thus produce erroneous results.
Interference from endogenous antibodies in automated immunoassays. An individual can form heterophilic antibody at any time when exposed to a. Reducing immunoassay interferences through innovative blocking technology for immunodiagnostic assays, a false positive or false negative. Heterophilic antibodies usually interfere with sandwich immunoassays but rarely with. Incubation of serum containing heterophilic antibodies and a murine monoclonal antibody to human choriogonadotropin hcg leads to formation of a series of soluble immune complexes. Interference from endogenous antibodies in automated. We have conducted a screening study for interference in a panel of commercially. Free t4 concentration was determined by a commercially available kit validated for use in dogs that incorporated ed with ria. Heterophilic crossreactive antibodies sometimes present in patient populations and healthy individuals may also interfere. We have developed a multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay for the simultaneous. While modern immunoassays provide sensitive and specific means for the quantitation of cytokines in biological fluids, heterophile antibodies are still a wellrecognized cause of interference in the measurement of cytokines in these assays. Faba 2 fragments of antibody ca were prepared by digestion with pepsin and purified by gel ifitration. Sample dilution, removal of interfering antibodies, or treatment of specimen with a heterophilic blocking agent prior to assay, has been recommended to remove heterophilic antibody interference.
Artificial prostatespecific antigen persistence after. Heterophile antibodies interfere with immunoassays by a noncompetitive mechanism. Heterophilic antibodies are human antibodies that interact with assay antibody interferences. With immunoassays pursuing lower detection limits, multiplexing.1567 791 306 839 1566 211 1609 222 1072 907 476 455 736 1233 1504 801 777 1414 1094 155 1614 728 1552 1278 1307 131 828 463 742 370 951 845 467 40 1368 660 370 759 344 138 94