New scientific discoveries had opened pathways for understanding more about our complex universe. A cultural explanation of swedens intervention in the. France was a mainly catholic country and was part of the holy roman empire. During the two first years, swedish troops occupied large parts of poland and the war was almost won. An alliance had developed between the commonwealth of polandlithuania and sweden towards the end of the livonian war, and in 1587 sigismund vasa, the heir to the swedish throne, had been elected king of polandlithuania in an attempt to secure that alliance. The thirty years war was a 17thcentury religious conflict fought primarily in central europe. A books total score is based on multiple factors, including the number of people who have voted for it and how highly those voters ranked the book. The regions protestant elector, johann georg, had just been compelled by the imperial edict of restitution 1629, and by tillys sack of magdeburg 1631, to abandon his neutral stance in the thirty years war and join the newly arrived 1630 swedes under gustavus.
The french, who had joined the protestant side, despite the catholics having just won the war over the french protestants a few decades. Dec 15, 2014 the thirty years war 16181648 the thirty years war began when ferdinand ii attempted to curtail the religious activities of his subjects, sparking rebellion among the protestants. He sought a policy of neutrality for much of the thirty years war, but was unable to keep his fiefdom out of the conflict as sweden occupied much of ducal prussias coastal regions since 1623. Axel, count oxenstierna chancellor of sweden britannica. Robert douglas began his career as a page to gustavus adolphus and rose to field marshal. George william, elector of brandenburg, duke of prussia was one of great german magnates during the thirty years war. Covers eastern europe, the baltic, italy, and france during the thirty years war, 161848. Justice economics and business education history law literature. Books on the thirty years war 16181648 71 books goodreads.
The ocean, once feared for its danger and depth, was tamed for travel and trade. Ive trawled through several wikipedia articles during quiet shifts at work not many people come into the library at night. A deadly continental struggle, the thirty years war devastated seventeenthcentury europe, killing nearly a quarter of all germans and laying waste to towns and countryside alike. A book which is, and will long remain, the standard authority on the subject. This book was first published in 1938 and is still considered the best book on the thirty years war. As the thirty years war began to rage through germany, gustavus adolphus wanted to join in the conflict, but he could not do it alone. That book is about half the length of this one and gives shorter shrift to the second half of the war. Somewhere along the way i picked up that the book on the thirty years war was the prosaically entitled the thirty years war written in 1938 by a twentyeightyearold english woman, c. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. France and sweden were at war, and england and denmark were greatly weakened by war.
The war raged over most of what is today known as germany and involved many european powerful countries. The thirty years war was a series of wars between various protestant and catholic states in the fragmented holy roman empire between 1618 and 1648. The thirty years war 16181648 the thirty years war began when ferdinand ii attempted to curtail the religious activities of his subjects, sparking rebellion among the protestants. This is the second book ive read recently about the thirty years war, both of which have the same informative, if unimaginative, title of the thirty years war. Swedish troops alone are said to have destroyed some 2,000 german castles. Swedish intervention and conduct in the thirty years war.
He was noted for his administrative reforms and for his diplomacy and military command during the thirty years war. Under the direction of the catholic church the armies of france were sent across belgium and the. Peter wilson offers the first new history in a generation of a horrifying conflict that transformed the map of the modern world. Wedgwood a descendent of the potter who founded the wedgwood company. Europes tragedy is a history of prodigious erudition that manages to corral the byzantine complexity of the thirty years war into a coherent narrative. The enigma of the thirty years war is a wellreceived biography one of the war s chief generals.
The swedish invasion of the holy roman empire, or the swedish intervention in the thirty years war is a historically accepted division of the thirty years war. Oxenstierna, the swedish chancellor, anxious to preserve sweden s hold in germany, supported richelieu. Cristian cantirs mentorship throughout my undergraduate career at oakland university, particularly as i created, revised, and presented this paper. The war did not go well, and in the autumn of 1657, denmarknorway declared war against sweden.
Infantry and artillery menatarms by vladimir brnardic and darko pavlovic oct 27, 2009 4. Swedens previous neutrality policy had originated largely as a result of swedens involvement in the napoleonic wars during which over a third of the. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Jul 25, 2016 the thirty years war consisted of multiple phases, lasting from 1618 to 1648. Headnotes introduce each selection, and a general introduction provides both a brief history of the war and a discussion of its. Biography of christina, unconventional queen of sweden. The swedish force only entered the thirty years war 12 years after it began to side with the protestants. Actions of the thirty years war eastern europe, the baltic, italy and france the third in a trilogy of books by the renowned author fills in the gaps in tyw coverage.
I doubt if there is anything in any european language which covers the. Whether sweden was truly neutral in world war two has been the subject of much debate over the years. I would like to express my sincerest gratitude for dr. Queen christina of sweden december 18, 1626april 19, 1689 reigned for nearly 22 years, from nov. Religion and political control france got involved on the side of the germanic holy roman empire which was catholic and was trying to suppress the protestant movement in germany started by martin luther.
When sweden acquires norway from denmark in 1814, the norwegians resist. List of books and articles about thirty years war 16181648. Sweden history, scandinavian history, books barnes. Headnotes introduce each selection, and a general introduction provides both a brief history of the war and a discussion. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, 14 it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but also from violence, famine, and plague. Swedish intervention in the thirty years war wikipedia. Books on swedish history hey all, ive recently gotten very interested in swedish history specifically swedens time as a great power, the northern wars, thirty years war, etc.
The war consisted among the major powers of europe, with sweden, france, spain and austria. Discover librarianselected research resources on thirty years war 16181648 from. The initial phase, what historians refer to as the bohemian revolt, was a result of the holy roman emperor, ferdinand ii, attempting to assert imperial and catholic control over territories that had broken away during the reformation. Wars of religion thirty years war linkedin slideshare. It remains one of the longest and most brutal wars in human. Europe in 1618 was riven between protestants and catholics, bourbon and hapsburgas well as empires, kingdoms, and countless principalities. Basically it was about religion, a war fought to determine the power of one religion over the other.
It begins its narative in 1608 to show some of the background of the war. Swedish neutrality refers to swedens former policy of neutrality in armed conflicts, which was in effect from the early 19th century, until 2009, when sweden entered into various mutual defence treaties with the eu, and other nordic countries. Alexander erskine was minister of war to gustavus adolphus and represented sweden at the conference that resulted in the treaty of westphalia 1648 ending the thirty years war. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of europe, and, when it ended with the treaty of westphalia in 1648, the map of europe had been irrevocably changed. Despite its age first published in 1938, this is still one of the best english language narratives of this most complex of wars, tracing the intricate dance of diplomacy and combat that involved all of europe in the fate of germany. The thirty years war happens to be one of the periods of european history that im most interested in and lead me to buy the card driven game of the same name, which is the first wargaming ive done since school and im 36 now. While those are surface similarities, there have been plenty of multisided conflicts and competitive great power interventions. The holy roman empire was a fragmented collection of largely independent states, which, after the protestant reformation in the 16th century, was divided between catholic and protestant rulership. Oxenstierna, the swedish chancellor, anxious to preserve swedens hold in germany, supported richelieu.
Gustavus adolphus thirty years war discerning history. The lion of the north swedes and scots save germany for. Through a wide variety of key documentsmost of which appear in english for the first time herethis sourcebook reveals the origins, significance, and consequences of the thirty years war 16181648, the first great, and catastrophic, paneuropean conflict. Swedish intervention and conduct in the thirty yearsaz war. The thirty years war consisted of multiple phases, lasting from 1618 to 1648. The bubonic plague had claimed the lives of about 75. The protestants rose up in revolt, but within two years the rebellion was stamped out by the habsburg general, count of tilly. The role of sweden in the thirty years war the brief, brilliant campaigns of gustavus adolphus dominate the history of the thirty years war for many. Best books on the thirty years war five books expert. Europe in 1618 was riven between protestants and catholics, bourbon and hapsburgas well. What are the best history books for the 30 years war. Despite the british naval blockade of nazi germany and the official proposed intentions from the swedish government to maintain political neutrality, sweden exported iron ore to supply nazi germanys war industry via the norwegian port of narvik. This book is an exallent book on the thirty years war.
Scots in particular fought at every level, especially on the swedish side, and on. Alliances in the latter half of the thirty years war were largely based on. A young boy king had inherited the crown of the swedish empire, and his neighbors saw an opportunity to attack. The best history books five books expert recommendations. She also was known for being an unusually welleducated woman for her time.
Wilson is doorstopper of a book the thirty years war edited by geoffrey parker is much shorter than the wilson text, but worth checking out geoff mortimers wallenstein. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. More broadly, the duel between swedish and imperial forces has become the defining conflict of the war, with the twelve years that preceded it being relegated to the background. The thirty years war in the german states between 1618 and 1648 has been invoked repeatedly in discussing the syrian conflict, with commentators focusing on the multiple sides in the struggle and the interference by great powers. Peter wilson offers the first new history in a generation of a horrifying conflict. Samuel pufendorf was born on january 8, 1632 in dorfchemnitz, a small town southwest of chemnitz in saxony.
This was a long war that was fought from 1618 to 1648. If his troops were engaged in germany, the undefended homeland would be attacked by poland, or another of swedens unfriendly catholic neighbors. French, swedes, and scots save germany for the reformation during the 30 years war 1618 1648. It was a military conflict that took place between 1630 and 1635, during the course of the thirty years war.
Thirty years war, 161848, in european history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. The thirty years war was a war fought primarily in central europe between 1618 and 1648. The role of sweden in the thirty years war michael. Why did france get involved in the thirty years war. Apr 22, 2016 that depends on your current knowledge of the subject, and the level of detail youd like to have. The best books on the thirty years war fought in europe 16181648. Peace, is significant because in the classic paradigm, religion is taken out of politics and this. His history of the thirty years war in germany appeared in an english. That depends on your current knowledge of the subject, and the level of detail youd like to have. Cardinal richelieu was also france entered openly into the war in 1635.
Dec 18, 2017 whether sweden was truly neutral in world war two has been the subject of much debate over the years. Great northern war when sweden ruled the world extra. Since playing thirty years war ive really gotten into cdgs and block games. The long polishswedish war of 16001629 developed from the swedish civil war of 159798. Following past articles on the role of spain here and switzerland here in world war two, kaiya rai presents the arguments for both sides how sweden assisted both nazi germany and the allied powers. Historical fiction 1600 1700, books on the thirty years war 16181648, and war widows. The role of sweden in the thirty years war michael fassbender. The thirty years war edited by geoffrey parker is much shorter than the wilson text, but worth checking out. If youre looking for an overview, the entry in my favorite singlevolume military history book, lynn montruss war through the ages is excellent, i. Axel, count oxenstierna, chancellor of sweden 161254, successively under king gustav ii adolf and queen christina.910 240 1221 73 1310 916 818 855 138 670 1526 911 799 1383 94 625 934 1622 1267 1045 1409 780 704 1174 572 1183 1046 1338